Geographic Distribution
Clinical Features
Laboratory Diagnosis


Lymphatic filariasis most often consists of asymptomatic microfilaremia. Some patients develop lymphatic dysfunction causing lymphedema and elephantiasis (frequently in the lower extremities) and, with Wuchereria bancrofti, hydrocele and scrotal elephantiasis. Episodes of febrile lymphangitis and lymphadenitis may occur. Persons who have newly arrived in disease-endemic areas can develop afebrile episodes of lymphangitis and lymphadenitis. An additional manifestation of filarial infection, mostly in Asia, is pulmonary tropical eosinophilia syndrome, with nocturnal cough and wheezing, fever, and eosinophilia. Onchocerciasis can cause pruritus, dermatitis, onchocercomata (subcutaneous nodules), and lymphadenopathies. The most serious manifestation consists of ocular lesions that can progress to blindness. Loiasis (Loa loa) is often asymptomatic. Episodic angioedema (Calabar swellings) and subconjunctival migration of an adult worm can occur. Infections by Mansonella perstans, while often asymptomatic, can be associated with angioedema, pruritus, fever, headaches, arthralgias, and neurologic manifestations. Mansonella streptocerca can cause skin manifestations including pruritus, papular eruptions and pigmentation changes. Eosinophilia is often prominent in filarial infections. Mansonella ozzardi can cause symptoms that include arthralgias, headaches, fever, pulmonary symptoms, adenopathy, hepatomegaly, and pruritus.

For more information view the source: Center for Disease Control

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