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Capillaria plica (dog bladder worm) is a parasitic nematode which is most often found in the urinary bladder, and occasionally in the kidneys, of dogs and foxes. It has also been found in the domestic cat, and various wild mammals. Its presence usually produces no clinical symptoms, but in some cases, it leads to hematuria (blood in the urine), cystitis (inflammation of the urinary bladder), or difficulty in urination.

TAXONOMY AND DISCRIPTION

This species was originally described in 1819, and named Capillaria plica. In 1982, the suggestion was made that C. plica be transferred to the genus Pearsonema Freitas & Mendona 1960, as Pearsonema plica. Currently, both names are used in the literature with roughly equal frequency. For example, searches of the PubMed database performed on 22 Nov 2008 yielded the same number of hits dated 2000 or later using either Capillaria plica or Pearsonema plica. Males are 13-30 mm long and females are 30-60 mm long. Eggs are colorless, oval and pitted, and measure 50-68 um by 22-32 m.

HOST AND DISTRIBUTION

Capillaria plica is often found in the urine, urinary bladder or kidneys of dogs and cats in North America, Europe, Asia and Africa. It has also been identified in the urinary bladder and kidneys of several wild mammals in North America and Europe:
American Badger (Taxidea taxus; North America)
American Mink (Mustela vison; in introduced European populations)
Brown Bear (Ursus arctos; Russia)
Coyote (Canis latrans; North America)
European Badger (Meles meles; Europe)
European mink (Mustela lutreola; Europe)
Fisher (Martes pennanti; North America)
Lynx (Felis lynx; Lithuania)
Marten (Martes americanus; North America)
Masked Shrew (Sorex cinereus; North America)
Northern Short-tailed Shrew (Blarina brevicauda; North America)
Raccoon (Procyon lotor; North America)
Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides; Europe)
Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes; North America and Europe)
Skunk (Mephitis mephitis; North America)
Wolf (Canis lupus; Europe)

LIFE CYCLE

Capillaria plica is often found in the urine, urinary bladder or kidneys of dogs and cats in North America, Europe, Asia and Africa. It has also been identified in the urinary bladder and kidneys of several wild mammals in North America and Europe:
American Badger (Taxidea taxus; North America) American Mink (Mustela vison; in introduced European populations)
Brown Bear (Ursus arctos; Russia)
Coyote (Canis latrans; North America)
European Badger (Meles meles; Europe)
Fisher (Martes pennanti; North America)
Lynx (Felis lynx; Lithuania)
Marten (Martes americanus; North America)
Masked Shrew (Sorex cinereus; North America)
Northern Short-tailed Shrew (Blarina brevicauda; North America)
Raccoon (Procyon lotor; North America)
Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides; Europe)
Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes; North America and Europe)
Skunk (Mephitis mephitis; North America)
Wolf (Canis lupus; Europe)

CLINICAL SYMPTOMS

Most infected animals exhibit no clinical symptoms. In cases of heavy infestation, symptoms may include cystitis (inflammation of the urinary bladder), mild proteinuria (protein in the urine), and hematuria (blood in the urine). Mild inflammation of the ureter has also been reported.

For more information view the source:Wikipedia

Recommended Test: Full GI Panel

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