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Biology
Geographic Distribution
Clinical Features
Laboratory Diagnosis

Trichomonads, such as Pentatrichomonas hominis, are obligate protozoan symbionts found in vertebrates and (with exceptions) are considered to be generally non-pathogenic. They bear multiple anterior flagella and a single recurrent (i.e., posteriorly directed) flagellum that functions as an undulating membrane. Pentatrichomonas hominis inhabits the large intestine of a number of mammalian hosts, including cats, dogs, non-human primates, and pigs. Opportunistic overgrowth of P. hominis can cause disease, typically involving diarrhea. Trophozoites of P. hominis reproduce by binary fission and undergo direct host-to-host transmission without formation of environmentally stable cysts.

BIOLOGY

CAUSAL AGENTS
Pentatrichomonas hominis, a nonpathogenic flagellate.

LIFE CYCLE

B malayi LifeCycle

Only trophozoites of Pentatrichomonas hominis are shed in feces The number 1, as there is no known cyst stage for this species. Infection occurs after the ingestion of trophozoites in fecal-contaminated food or water, or on fomites The number 2. Pentatrichomonas resides in the large intestine, where it is regarded as a commensal and is not known to cause disease.

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

Worldwide

CLINICAL FEATURES

Pentatrichomonas hominis is considered nonpathogenic. The presence of trophozoites in stool specimens can however be an indicator of fecal contamination of a food or water source, and thus does not rule-out other parasitic infections.

LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS

Pentatrichomonas hominis is identified through the detection of trophozoites in stool specimens. Identification is best accomplished by direct wet mounts that reveal the characteristic, jerky movement of the organisms. They may also be identified in permanent stained smears, although their affinities for stain are inconsistent and with their small size are often overlooked.

For more information view the source: Center for Disease Control

Recommended Test: Full GI Panel

Recommended Product: Freedom Cleanse Restore Parasite Cleanse